A Parent’s Guide
If you decide to use natural methods to find solutions to the problems discussed below please contact us firstname.lastname@example.org before purchasing anything. There are lots of poor quality products out there and looking for a bargain in this field is usually a mistake. For example:
Warning: There is much misinformation and lack of knowledge about vitamin supplementation. Below is a helpful summary of research done by Dr. Michael Pazdon, at the University of New Hampshire. His report is as follows:
“Of the vitamin supplements being marketed in the United States today, we found that there are basically three types (1) Synthetic (chemical), (2) Crystallized (heat processed) and (3) Lyophilized (low temperature dehydration).
These three types were tested by chromatograms prepared by the method of Pfeiffer (BioDynamics 50, 2t), with slight modification.
1. SYNTHETIC: A chemical vitamin isolate made from inorganic materials, i.e., petroleum by-products. Sold mainly in drugstores, these vitamins act as drugs in the body. They may set up toxic reactions, and thereby rob the body of its own storehouse of antibodies.
2. CRYSTALLIZED: Commonly labeled “organic” or “natural”, these vitamins are isolates derived at least partly from a whole food (organic) source by a High Temperature process (products need be only 10% organic to legally carry the label “natural ingredients”). Most of the live enzymes necessary for absorption into the body have been destroyed in this type of vitamin. (Example: If we labeled a dead horse “natural and organic”, our label would be correct. If we wanted to ride him to town, however, we would be out of luck. “Organic and Natural” do not necessarily mean “alive”.) This is the type of vitamin sold in some drug stores and most health food stores.
3. LYOPHILIZED: Whole food is dehydrated by a cold process (similar to freeze-drying), preserving the complex of vitamins, bioflavinoids and enzymes found in nature. Enzymes necessary for absorption into the body remain intact. The only company we could find marketing this type of supplement is Shaklee Corporation"
Executive Function Impairments in
High IQ Adults With ADHD
Thomas E. Brown
Philipp C. Reichel
Donald M. Quinlan
Yale University School of Medicine
Objectives: To demonstrate that high IQ adults diagnosed with ADHD suffer from executive function (EF) impairments that: a) can be identified with a combination of standardized measures and self-report data; and b) occur more commonly in this group than in the general population. Method: 157 ADHD adults with IQ ≥ 120 were assessed with 8 normed measures
of EF– 3 index scores from standardized tests of memory and cognitive abilities, and 5 subscales of a normed selfreport measure of EF impairments in daily life. Results: 73% of subjects were significantly impaired on ≥ 5 of these 8 EF markers. On all 8 measures, incidence of these impairments was significantly greater than in the general population.
Conclusion: High IQ adults with ADHD tend to suffer EF impairments that can be assessed with these measures; incidence of such impairments in this group is significantly higher than in the general population.
OVERVIEW OF ADD/ADHD DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most frequently diagnosed childhood psychiatric condition.(1) One in every four children with ADHD has a biologic parent with a current or prior diagnosis of ADHD. In addition, children with fetal alcohol syndrome, lead poisoning, meningitis, or genetic resistance to thyroid hormone have a higher incidence of ADHD symptomatology.(2, 3) Although not a primary cause, a positive association exists between family environment adversity factors (severe marital discord, low social class, large family size, paternal criminality, maternal mental disorder, foster care) and ADHD.(2, 4)
Prior to 1980, a child presenting with short attention span, impulsivity, and hyperactivity was diagnosed with Minimal Brain Dysfunction. However, this diagnosis was controversial because clinicians could not consistently identify specific neurologic deficiencies. In 1980, the American Psychiatric Association made a decision to de-emphasize neurological dysfunction as a basis for diagnosis, and instead, use behavior. The syndrome was called ADD (Attention Deficit Disorder) with or without Hyperactivity. Hyperactivity has now been defined as an essential component and the name has been changed to ADHD
Although brain studies show no definitive pathophysiologic markers of ADHD, a dysequilibratory disorder of the frontal-neostriatial dopamine systems with widely varying states of arousal has been proposed. Children with ADHD tend to have phasic outbursts of activity and inactivity, resulting in insufficient alertness during dull and repetitive tasks, and overarousal at other times, resulting in ineffective performance. Stimulant drugs may serve as a homeostat to stabilize arousal and thereby temper the spontaneous fluctuations that are characteristic of ADHD.(2, 5) The clinical response with stimulants is not paradoxical and is not diagnostic for ADHD, because asymptomatic children also experience increased attention, decreased motor activity, and improvement on learning tasks when given stimulants.
Onset is typically seen by the age of three, and must be seen by the age of seven. However, the disorder may not require professional attention until the child enters school.
Conventional treatment is often pharmaceutical, but evidence is mounting that many ADHD sufferers can achieve dramatic results with dietary, nutritional, and environmental interventions. Particularly among young children, non- pharmaceutical interventions provide a risk free alternative that can be explored as a first line of treatment. Nutritional interventions include supplementation with magnesium, chromium, and other minerals, elimination of food additives and allergens, and the examining the role of dysbiosis.
Mineral status among those with ADHD has been the subject of several published clinical trials. Deficiencies in magnesium, copper, iron, zinc, and calcium have been identified among children diagnosed with ADHD more often than among "healthy" children. Magnesium deficiency is the most common of the mineral deficiencies associated with ADHD
ADHD may be influenced by dysbiosis. The presence of dysbiotic flora is encouraged by the use of antibiotics, which can destroy "friendly" or probiotic flora normally inhabiting the intestinal mucosa. The average child undergoes multiple courses of antibiotic treatment in the first five years of life, typically without replacement of probiotics. The resulting overgrowth of yeast and other pathogenic flora has been linked to alterations of immune function, food sensitivities, and ADHD. A study reported that high levels of antimetabolites, consistent with fungal or Candida related complex, were identified in the urine of children with ADHD.(6) Supplementing with probiotics is an important therapeutic modality.
Citations1 McGough JJ, McCracken JT. Assessment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a review of recent literature. Curr Opin Pediatr. Aug2000;12(4):319-24.View Abstract
2 Cantwell CB. Attention Deficit Disorder: A review of the last 10 years. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1996;35:978-987.
3 Zametkin AJ. Attention Deficit Disorder: Born to be hyperactive? Grand rounds at the Clinical Center of the National Institutes of Health. JAMA. 1995;16:174-184.
4 Biederman J. Family-environmental risk factors for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1995;52:464-470.View Abstract
5 Pliszka SR, McCracken JT, Maas JW. Catecholamines in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Current Perspectives. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1996;35:264-272.View Abstract
6 Hanna GL, Ornitz EM, Hariharan M. Urinary catecholamine excretion and behavioral differences in ADHD and normal boys. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 1996;6(1):63-73.View Abstract
National Attention Deficit Disorder Association, 1999.
- 4-6% of the United States population has ADHD.
- 1/2 - 2/3 of all children with ADHD will continue to have problems with ADHD as adults.
- 1/3 of people with ADHD do not have the hyperactive or overactive behavior component.
- There is a 25-35% chance that if one family member has ADHD another member will also, compared to 4-6% of general population.
* 4.5 million children 3-17 years of age (7.4%) had ADHD.
* Between the ages of 3-17 years, boys were more than twice as likely as girls to have ADHD (10.2% and 4.5%).
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
There are three essential features of ADHD: the first involves a developmentally inappropriate inattention that manifests as failing to finish tasks, not seeming to listen, becoming easily distracted, having difficulty concentrating on school work or sticking to play activities. The second is impulsivity, and often manifests as acting before thinking, shifting excessively from one activity to another, needing much supervision, frequently calling out in class, and difficulty awaiting a turn in games or group activities. The third feature is hyperactivity, which generally involves excessive running about or climbing, difficulty sitting or staying seated, and excessive movement during sleep.(1)
Children with ADHD have difficulty maintaining a consistent direction, seemingly distracted by stimuli that, for most children, are easily organized and filtered. Tasks that require concentration are nearly impossible and cause frustration, resulting in irritability, agitation, and often recklessness. Intelligence among ADHD children is typically normal. ADHD is more prevalent among boys than girls.(2)
The following list does not insure the presence of this health condition. Please see your healthcare professional for more information. Do not self diagnose!
Developmentally inappropriate inattentionFailing to finish tasks
Not seeming to listen
Becoming easily distracted
Having difficulty concentrating on school work or sticking to play activities
ImpulsivityActing before thinking
Shifting excessively from one activity to another
Needing much supervision
Frequently calling out in class
Difficulty waiting a turn in games or group activities
Excessive running about or climbing
Difficulty sitting or staying seated
Excessive movement during sleep
ConventionalThe primary factor in the decision to initiate drug treatment is the severity of symptoms, with drug treatment being reserved for those with moderate to severe symptom intensity. The use of methylphenidate, the most commonly prescribed drug for the management of ADHD, has increased 700 percent in the past five years.(1) The use of psychotropic drugs in children should be approached very differently from the way they are used for psychiatric disorders in adults. The child, family, and caregivers need to be familiar with the risks and benefits of drug therapy and alternate non-drug therapies.
Stimulants (methylphenidate, dextroamphetamine, and pemoline) are the most effective drug treatment options. Dosing should be titrated for maximum efficacy and minimum side effects. Disorders comorbid with ADHD will impact drug selection. For example, a child with ADHD plus a depressive or anxiety disorder may require an antidepressant as first line therapy.
Additional information (Precautions) is available by clicking on the underlined supplement.
Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Omega-6 Fatty AcidsIt has been suggested that a lack of essential fatty acids is a possible cause of hyperactivity in children. It is more likely the result of varying biochemical influences. These children have a deficiency of essential fatty acids (EFA's) either because they cannot metabolize linoleic acid normally, cannot absorb EFA's effectively from the gut, or because their EFA requirements are higher than normal.
Evidence supporting that fatty acids are deficient includes:
Most of the food constituents, which cause trouble in these children are weak inhibitors of the conversion of EFA's to prostaglandins (PG's).
Boys are much more commonly affected than girls, and males are known to have much higher requirements for EFA's than females.
A high proportion of these children have abnormal thirst, and thirst is one of the signs of EFA deficiency.
Many hyperactive children have eczema, allergies, and asthma, which some reports suggest can be alleviated by EFA's.
Many hyperactive children are deficient in zinc, which is required for the conversion of EFA's to PG's.
Some of these children are badly affected by wheat and milk, which are known to give rise to exorphins in the gut, which can block conversion of EFA's to PGE1.(2)
Children with ADD/ADHD may have yeast metabolites in their urine signaling dysbiosis, subsequent alterations in absorption of nutrients, and a rich antibiotic use history.
Study reported that children with hyperactivity have significantly lower levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), dihomogammalinolenic acid (DGLA), and arachidonic acid (AA) compared to normal controls.(3, 4)
Some of the physical symptoms reported in ADHD are similar to symptoms observed in essential fatty acid (EFA) deficiency in animals and humans. Researchers report that a subgroup of patients expressing many symptoms similar to those seen in EFA deficiency had lower plasma levels of docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid compared to those with fewer symptoms. Children with low levels of total omega-3 fatty acids exhibited significantly more behavioral problems, temper tantrums, and learning, health, and sleep problems than did those with high proportions of omega-3 fatty acids.(5)
MagnesiumMagnesium is one of the most commonly deficient nutrients in children with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorders. In one study, investigations evaluated 116 children (94 boys and 20 girls), aged 9-12 years, with recognized ADHD. Magnesium levels were determined in blood serum, red blood cells, and in hair with the aid of atomic absorption spectroscopy. Magnesium deficiency was found in 95 percent of those examined, most frequently in hair (77.6 percent), in red blood cells (58.6 percent), and in blood serum (33.6 percent) of children with ADHD.(6)
Another study evaluated 50 hyperactive children, aged 7-12 years, who fulfilled DSM IV criteria for ADHD syndrome, with recognized deficiency of magnesium in the blood (blood serum and red blood cells). In this six-month trial, one group of children took 200mg/day of magnesium while the control group consisted of 25 children with ADHD and magnesium deficiency, who were treated in a standard way, without magnesium preparations. Magnesium supplementation resulted in a significant decrease of hyperactivity compared to their clinical state before supplementation and compared to the control group, which had not been treated with magnesium.(7) Deficiency symptoms include anxiousness, nervousness, restless limbs, and muscle aches. The chief sources of magnesium in the diet are fruits and vegetables.
N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC)N-acetyl cysteine is a sulfur-containing amino acid that is an effective agent for chelation and removal of heavy metal toxins from the body.(8, 9) Studies reveal that exposure to toxic metals such as mercury(10) and lead(11) result in declines in attention and memory, as well as many other negative effects. If patients with ADD/ADHD are found to have elevated levels of toxic metals, N-acetyl cysteine is an effective agent to utilize in a detoxification program.
Bifidobacteria and Lactobacillus acidophilusStudies report an association between recurrent otitis media infections in infancy and the subsequent development of hyperactivity in a high percentage of these children.(12) The authors of the following study report a positive correlation between an increasing number of otitis media infections in early childhood and the presence and severity of hyperactive behavior. Ninety-four percent of children medicated for hyperactivity had three or more otitis infections, and 69 percent had greater than 10 infections. In comparison, 50 percent of non-hyperactive school-failure patients had three or more infections, and 20 percent had greater than 10 infections. Twenty-two of 28 children (79 percent) known to have more than 10 infections experienced recurrent otitis before one year of age.(13)
The frequent use of antibiotics can result in dysbiosis, a disturbed balance between beneficial and pathologic bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract, leading to a wide variety of health problems. The intestinal tract in a healthy person is predominantly populated with beneficial bacteria. Antibiotics can destroy a large percentage of the beneficial bacteria. If probiotics are not taken following a course of antibiotics, pathological bacteria that are normally present in only small concentrations can compete equally with the few remaining friendly bacteria. If substantial amounts of pathological bacteria proliferate, it is quite possible the toxins excreted from their metabolism can enter the systemic circulation, causing hyperactivity, blood sugar anomalies, malabsorption of nutrients as well as other conditions. Since studies have documented the fact that many children with hyperactivity have had inner ear infections with multiple courses of antibiotics, there is a high probability that most of these children have a disturbed intestinal microflora. Steps can be taken to recolonize the intestinal tract. After cleaning out the GI tract, probiotics should be administered twice daily with meals for a minimum of two to six months in order to recolonize the GI tract with beneficial bacteria.
Herbal SupplementationAdditional information (Precautions) is available by clicking on the underlined supplement.
Olive Leaf Olive trees, widely cultivated throughout Mediterranean countries as a source of olives and olive oil, have been traditionally used not only in foods but in health conditions including malaria, infections, cardiovascular diseases and general well-being.(14) The natural antioxidants including oleuropein from the olive tree may play a role in prevention of cardiovascular diseases through a decreased formation of atherosclerotic plaques by inhibiting LDL oxidation.(15)
Olive leaf extract has been reported to be an effective antimicrobial agent against a wide variety of pathogens, including Salmonella typhi, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Staphylococcus aureus (including penicillin-resistant strains); Klebsiella pneumonia and Escherichia coli, causal agents of intestinal or respiratory tract infections.(16) The component usually associated with olive leaf's antimicrobial properties is oleuropein.(17, 18) Oleuropein has also been reported to directly stimulate macrophage activation in laboratory studies.(19)
Olive leaf extract has antiviral activity, reportedly caused by the constituent calcium elenolate, a derivative of elenolic acid.(20, 21) Recent laboratory studies in laboratory animals reported hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activity. (22, 23) The active constituent was reported to be oleuropein, with a proposed mechanism of action being the potentiation of glucose-induced insulin release, and an increase in peripheral blood glucose uptake.
Evening Primrose Evening primrose oil (EPO) is rich in gamma-linolenic acid, which is an omega-6 fatty acid. (33, 34) Omega-6 fatty acids reportedly reduce the arachidonic acid cascade and decrease inflammation through inhibiting the formation of inflammatory mediators in this process. Supplementation with essential fatty acids such as EPO has been reported to prevent zinc deficiency, thereby potentially improving immunity.(35) Fatty acids are an important part of normal homeostasis. The human body can produce all but two fatty acids: omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. Both must be obtained through the diet or with the use of supplements. Obtaining a balance of these two fatty acids is essential. Essential fatty acids are needed for building cell membranes and are precursors for production of hormones and prostaglandins. Modern diets tend to be lacking in quality sources of fatty acids.
Grapefruit Seed Grapefruit seed extract has been reported to be a broad spectrum antimicrobial both in vitro and in vivo. Studies indicate that the antimicrobial activity of grapefruit seed extract exists in the cytoplasmic membrane of the invading bacteria, where the uptake of amino acids is prevented. There is disorganization of the cytoplasmic membrane and leakage of low molecular weight cellular contents, ultimately resulting in inhibition of cellular respiration and death.(36)
Grapefruit seed extract also inhibits the growth of H. pylori and C. jejuni, both causative agents in gastrointestinal ulcers.(37) By inhibiting causative agents of bowel dysbiosis (the imbalance of normal bacterial flora in the GIT) including Candida sp. in vivo, grapefruit seed extract is a useful agent in maintaining bowel integrity.(38) In this human study, an improvement in constipation, flatulence, abdominal distress, and night rest were noticed after four weeks of therapy. Many clinicians are now recognizing the importance of maintaining homeostasis of the microflora in health and disease.(39)
BacopaBacopa or water hyssop, is a plant used since approximately the sixth century A.D. in the traditional Ayurvedic Medical System of India as an extract with cognition-enhancing benefits. Termed "Brahmi" in the Hindu language Sanskrit, bacopa is the foremost tonic for the nervous system in Ayurvedic medicine. It has been traditionally used for epilepsy, mental illness, and to improve memory and mental capacities.(40) The saponin compounds (bacosides) are attributed with the capability to enhance nerve impulse transmission and thereby strengthen memory and general cognition. Bacopa was reported to increase learning ability in laboratory animals.(41) Clinically, bacopa has been reported to be a useful agent for improving intellectual behavior in children. In adults, bacopa has been reported to be effective in reducing anxiety levels, thereby allowing improved brain functioning in terms of memory enhancement and elevated mental performance.(42)
Bacopa is also reported beneficial in children. Bacopa is still given in India to school age children for improving intellectual behavior. A single-blind trial in India was conducted to study the effects of bacopa on children (ages 6-8) and learning behavior.(43) Maze learning improved, as did immediate memory and perception and the reaction/performance times. Based on these findings, bacopa may be a potential agent in ADHD therapy.
Diet and Lifestyle
The effect of diet on children with hyperactivity disorder has been the subject of debate for over 30 years. During the 1960's, Dr. Benjamin Feingold, a California pediatrician, studied the effects of a low salicylate diet in the treatment of ADHD after observing an exacerbation of symptoms among hyperactive children when they ate salicylate-containing foods. Feingold's observations led to a controlled clinical trial, which demonstrated that in addition to artificial colors and preservatives (which contain high amounts of salicylates), 90 percent of the ADHD children in the study had additional food intolerances.(44) The most common allergenic foods among children have been identified as cow's milk, corn, wheat, soy, peanuts, and eggs. Additional "problem foods" have been identified. An experimental diet among preschool boys with sleep problems and hyperactive behavior demonstrated that after removal of artificial flavors and colors, dairy products, caffeine, MSG, and chocolate, over 50 percent of the children improved.(45) One study compared the treatment success of dietary restriction with methylphenidate and found that while 44 percent responded to the drug treatment, 24 percent had equal success with dietary modifications alone.(46)
The Lancet published a study in 1985, which reported that 79 percent of hyperactive children improved when suspect foods were eliminated from their diets, only to become worse again when the foods were reintroduced. Artificial colorings and flavorings were the most serious culprits; sugar was also found to have a noticeable effect. The New York public school system initiated an experimental design in which sugar, food additives, and preservatives were gradually eliminated from the school cafeterias. During the four-year period of dietary modifications, the mean academic performance percentile rating increased from 39.2 percent to 54.9 percent.(47) Additives include artificial flavors and colors, preservatives including BHA and BHT, and sugars that can be identified in the forms of sucrose, fructose, corn syrup, mannitol, sorbitol, and other sweeteners.
1 Attention Deficit Disorder. The Harvard Mental Health Letter (I,II). Apr1995:1-8.2 Colquhoun I, Bunday S. A lack of essential fatty acids as a possible cause of hyperactivity in children. Med Hypotheses. May1981;7(5):673-9.View Abstract3 Mitchell EA, et al. Clinical characteristics and serum essential fatty acid levels in hyperactive children. Clin Pediatr (Phila). Aug1987;26(8):406-11.View Abstract4 Stevens L, Zentall SS, Deck JL. Essential fatty acid metabolism in boys with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Am J Clin Nutr. 1995;62:761-768. View Abstract5 Burgess JR, et al. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Am J Clin Nutr. Jan2000;71(1 Suppl):327S-30S.View Abstract6 Kozielec T, Starobrat-Hermelin B. Assessment of magnesium levels in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Magnes Res. Jun1997;10(2):143-8.View Abstract7 Starobrat-Hermelin B, Kozielec T. The effects of magnesium physiological supplementation on hyperactivity in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Positive response to magnesium oral loading test. Magnes Res. Jun1997;10(2):149-56.View Abstract8 Ottenwalder H, Simon P. Differential effect of N-acetylcysteine on excretion of the metals Hg, Cd, Pb and Au. Arch Toxicol. Jul1987;60(5):401-2.View Abstract9 Ballatori N, et al. N-acetylcysteine as an antidote in methylmercury poisoning. Environ Health Perspect. May1998;106(5):267-71. 10 Grandjean P, et al. Cognitive deficit in 7-year-old children with prenatal exposure to methylmercury. Neurotoxicol Teratol. Nov1997;19(6):417-28.View Abstract11 Tuthill RW. Hair lead levels related to children's classroom attention-deficit behavior. Arch Environ Health. May1996;51(3):214-20. View Abstract12 Adesman AR, et al. Otitis media in children with learning disabilities and in children with attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity. Pediatrics. Mar1990;85(3 Pt 2):442-6.View Abstract13 Hagermann RJ, Falkenstein AR. An association between recurrent otitis media in infancy and later hyperactivity. Clin Pediatr (Phila). May1987;26(5):253-7.View Abstract14 Ferro-Luzzi A, et al. Changing the Mediterranean diet: effects on blood lipids. Am J Clin Nutr. Nov1984;40(5):1027-37.View Abstract15 Visoli F, et al. Oleuropein protects low density lipoprotein from oxidation. Life Sciences. 1994;55:1965-71. View Abstract16 Bisignano G, et al. On the in-vitro antimicrobial activity of oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol. J Pharm Pharmacol. Aug1999;51(8):971-4. View Abstract17 Petkov V, Manolov P. Pharmacological analysis of the iridoid oleuropein. Drug Res. 1972;22(9):1476-86.18 Juven B, et al. Studies on the mechanism of the antimicrobial action of oleuropein. J Appl Bact. 1972;35:559.19 Visioli F, et al. Oleuropein, the bitter principle of olives, enhances nitric oxide production by mouse macrophages. Life Sci. 1998;62(6):541-6.View Abstract20 Renis HE. In vitro antiviral activity of calcium elenolate. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 1970;167-72.21 Heinze JE, et al. Specificity of the antiviral agent calcium elenolate. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. Oct1975;8(4):421-5.22 Bennani-Kabchi N, et al. Effects of Olea europea var. oleaster leaves in hypercholesterolemic insulin-resistant sand rats. Therapie. Nov1999;54(6):717-23. View Abstract23 Gonzalez M, et al. Hypoglycemic activity of olive leaf. Planta Medica. 1992;58:513-515. View Abstract24 Volz HP, et al. Kava-kava Extract WS 1490 Versus Placebo in Anxiety Disorders - A Randomized Placebo-controlled 25-week Outpatient Trial. Pharmacopsychiatry. Jan1997;30(1):1-5.View Abstract25 Singh YN. Kava: An Overview. J Ethnopharmacol. Aug1992;37(1):13-45.View Abstract26 Munte TF, et al. Effects of Oxazepam and an Extract of Kava Roots (Piper methysticum) on Event-related Potentials in a Word Recognition Task. Neuropsychobiology. 1993;27(1):46-53. View Abstract27 Drug Therapy of Panic Disorders. Kava-specific Extract WS 1490 Compared to Benzodiazepines. Nervenarzt. Jan1994;65(1Supp):1-4. 28 Jussofie A, et al. Kavapyrone Enriched Extract from Piper methysticum as Modulator of the GABA Binding Site in Different Regions of Rat Brain. Psychopharmacology (Berl). Dec1994;116(4):469-74. View Abstract29 Davies LP, et al. Kava Pyrones and Resin: Studies on GABAA, GABAB and Benzodiazepine Binding Sites in Rodent Brain. Pharmacol Toxicol. Aug1992;71(2):120-26. View Abstract30 Holm E, et al. The Action Profile of D,L-kavain. Cerebral Cites and Sleep-wakefulness-Rhythm in Animals. Arzneimittelforschung. Jul1991;41(7):673-83. View Abstract31 Duffield PH, et al. Development of Tolerance to Kava in Mice. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology. 1991;18(8):571-78.View Abstract32 Singh YN. Kava: An Overview. J Ethnopharmacol. 1992;37(1):13-45. View Abstract33 Chapkin RS, et al. Dietary Influences of Evening Primrose and Fish Oil on the Skin of Essential Fatty Acid-deficient Guinea Pigs. J Nutr. 1987;117(8):1360-70.View Abstract34 Dutta-Roy AK, et al. Effects of Linoleic and Gamma-linolenic Acids (Efamol Evening Primrose Oil) on Fatty Acid-binding Proteins of Rat Liver. Mol Cell Biochem. 1990;98(1-2):177-82.View Abstract35 Dib A, et al. Effects of Gamma-linolenic Acid Supplementation on Pregnant Rats Fed a Zinc-deficient Diet. Ann Nutr Meta. 1987;31(5):312-19. View Abstract36 Ionescu G, et al. Oral Citrus seed extract. J Orthomolecula Med. 1990;5(3):72-74. 37 Arimi SM. Campylobacter infection in humans.East Afr Med J. Dec1989;66(12):851-5. View Abstract38 Ionescu G, et al. Oral Citrus seed extract. J Orthomolecula Med. 1990;5(3):72-74. 39 Fitzgerald JF. Colonization of the gastrointestinal tract. Mead Johnson Symp Perinat Dev Med. 1977;(11):35-8.View Abstract40 Jain SK. Ethnobotany and Research on Medicinal Plants in India. Ciba Found Symp. 1994;185:153-64.View Abstract41 Singh HK, et al. Effect of Bacopa monniera Linn. (Brahmi) Extract on Avoidance Responses in Rat. J Ethnopharmacol. Mar1982;5(2):205-14. View Abstract42 Kidd PM. A Review of Nutrients and Botanicals in the Integrative Management of Cognitive Dysfunction. Altern Med Rev. Jun1999;4(3):144-61.View Abstract43 Sharma R, et al. Efficacy of Bacopa monniera in Revitalizing Intellectual Functions in Children. J Res Edu Ind Med. 1987;1:1-12.44 Egger J, et al. Controlled trial of oligoantigenic treatment in the hyperkinetic syndrome. Lancet. 1985;1:540-545.View Abstract45 Kaplan BJ, et al. Dietary replacement in preschool-aged hyperactive boys. Pediatrics. 1989;83:7-17.View Abstract46 Schmidt MH, et al. Does oligoantigenic diet influence hyperactive/conduct-disordered children: a controlled trial. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1997;6:88-95.View Abstract47 Schoenthaler, et al. The impact of a low food additive and sucrose diet on academic performance in 803 New York City public schools. International Journal of Biosocial Research. 1986;8:185-196.
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~Children’s Nutritional Program to Support a
Healthy Brain for Optimal Learning
Experts are expressing concern that over one million American children today are being given Ritalin for learning disabilities.
While this powerful drug may be necessary for a very few children, many learning difficulties relate to classical nutritional deficiencies and brain sensitivities, even when the children have not been labeled ADHD or LD. Optimal Learning nutrients work whether or not there is a perceived problem.
Because children sometimes are inconsistent in their consumption of fruits, vegetables and whole grains, these inconsistencies pose a particular challenge for parents. This challenge comes about because certain nutrients are essential for not only prevention of colds and viruses, but also necessary for proper brain development and learning ability. Therefore, experts recommend supplements with several nutrients that are too critical to be left to chance.
The following list represents a basic nutrition program for maintaining and building health in children. It also provides nutritional insurance effective in support for a healthy brain and nervous system as well as for filling the gaps that occur on those days when our schedules do not allow for three nutritionally balanced meals.
Shaklee Kids Incredivites and or CitriBoost powder
With a formula for every stage of life, no other leading “multi” supplement beats this product with 23 essential nutrients plus six trace minerals, rich in calcium, twice the daily value (DV) of antioxidant vitamin C and E, 100% of the DV for every B vitamin including biotin, and 100% of the proposed DV for vitamin K. Extra Vitamin D for growing bones and teeth, and Lactoferrin for extra immune support,
And/or CitriBoost Powder
Contains 23 essential vitamins and minerals plus acidophilus to slip into orange juice or morning protein shakes for children who have difficulty swallowing tablets or don’t want to chew their multi. .. has more calcium and Vitamin D than 8 ounces of milk.
Energizing Soy Protein or Cinch Shakes
Protein is essential for growth and repair of cells. In addition, Energizing Soy Protein and Cinch stabilize blood sugar, which is a critical nutrient for the brain, for up to three hours. Excellent for breakfast and after school snacks. Because milk products can be very mucous producing, our soy protein drink products are usually a better choice for children who are prone to upper respiratory inflections. Low in fat, high in complete protein, essential B vitamins and more. Works quickly to balance out blood sugar levels for a naturally calming effect—healthy smoothies.
Essential for brain and nervous system. Classic nutritional deficiencies are sugar cravings, sores in the corner of the mouth and nose. Helps fight fatigue, mood changes, irritability, nervousness and inability to concentrate. The Happy Vitamin – nutritionally complete!!!!
This natural fat emulsifier has been shown to improve memory and brain function and to reduce mental anxiety, headaches, tenseness, cholesterol and eczema. It is essential for neurotransmitters.
is a great and delicious way to get the DHA that children need for proper brain growth and development. DHA also promotes eye health, great memory and focus.
GLA Complex (Gamma Linolenic Acid) and OmegaGuard –Omega 3 Essential Fatty Acids
Essential fatty acids that the body cannot make, so we must get them from our foods. Positive results with some hyperactive children, especially effective with males, who had abnormal thirst, asthma, eczema, allergies and suffered from headaches.
Essential mineral for growth, lost with perspiration, important for mental acuity and healthy complexion.
Gentle Sleep Complex (Valerian)
A natural nerve calmative, this herb is known to reduce anxiety, relieves tension and restlessness, aids in anti-aggressive behavior. May be used throughout the day with children who have problems focusing.
OsteoMatrix and Chewable Cal Mag Plus
An essential mineral for muscles and nerves, a natural tranquilizer, often recommended for insomnia, headaches, irritability, reduces lead toxicity. Works quickly to calm. Chewables are a tasty berry flavor.
An excellent source of the essential friendly bacteria that are supposed to inhabit the lower intestines. Virtually the only acidophilus/bifidus product that guarantees delivery of 500,000 live microorganisms to the intestines, without being destroyed by the highly acidic environment of the stomach. Restores the natural balance that must exist in the lower intestines to choke out the cancer-causing bacteria as well as Candida yeast overgrowths. None of the products available at health food stores guarantee live delivery of microflora to the intestine. Tests show that many of the friendly bacteria do not make it live to your door, much less to your colon. Most of the microflora are alive in these products at the time of manufacture but are killed off long before they reach the intestine.
Fish Oil Caps taken to the next level—may be hard to get down young children, but they are well worth it. Mighty Smart is a great and delicious way to get the DHA that children need for proper brain growth and development. DHA also promotes eye health, memory and focus.
While parents will want to use their discretion and monitor for changes in mood or behavior when using the following three products with children, many parents of ADD/ADHD youth find them helpful as a brain stimulant to temper learning or behavioral problems, and consider them a much safer alternative to amphetamines or even the caffeine laden sodas (pop) & energy drinks consumed by many school aged youngsters.
CorEnergyThree capsules provide herbal adaptogens and antioxidant phytonutrients that support the body's own ability to maintan energy and resist everyday fatigue*
Shaklee Energy ChewsShaklee Energy Chews provide a clean burst of healthy energy to help you get that extra edge when you need it most. Each chew contains a scientific blend of caffeine from natural green tea extract, plus L-tyrosine, L-theanine, B vitamins and vitamin D. And there are no artificial flavors, sweeteners or added preservatives you'll find in other energy products.
Energy TeaAs if the exotic white, red and Matcha green teas aren't extraordinary enough, we added the juicy flavor of pomegranate. Don't be surprised to find yourself with the natural energy to squeeze more out of every day.
Peanut Butter Fudge recipe—
super healthy after school snacks-and for lunches
1 cup peanut butter (other butters may be used—such as Almond, Cashew, Sunflower seed butter)
1 cup Shaklee protein power (any flavor)
1 cup Shaklee Cinch powder (any flavor)
3/4 cup honey
For extra nutrition, add sesame seeds, sunflower seeds, raisins or Fiber Blend Daily Crunch (1/3 cup). Mix together and form into balls. Freeze or Refrigerate. Wonderful snack!
The Shaklee Difference –
Shaklee products are born from painstaking research and development. From the pioneering work of our founder, Dr. Forrest C. Shaklee, in 1915 and through the decades, Shaklee has been a leader in nutritional products. Over $250 million has been invested in maintaining the integrity of Shaklee science. Shaklee leads the industry in analytical methods to test purity and efficacy. As many as 83,000 quality control tests are performed on our nutritional products alone. Shaklee conducts no animal testing on its products.
Thanks to Anita Hutson, Debbie Loveless and Linda Dietz for updating this info for us.
Parents Warned: Don't Use Ritalin
Most people are unaware that problems such as ADD, ADHD, Dyslexia, and Autism are high IQ related disorders. As Gifted Child Coordinator for Mensa the High IQ Society I am very familiar with these problems. Our clinic has many years of experience in using natural solutions rather than drugs. Please contact us if you want to get your child off drugs or if your child has been diagnosed with one of these high IQ related disorders please consider natural solutions before resorting to drugs.
Hyperactive children should no longer be given Ritalin, new health guidelines say.
Ritalin should no longer be given to hyperactive children.
The drug should not be prescribed to children under five and used for older children only when they have severe ADHD or as a last resort, the guidance says.
Instead, parents should be taught psychological techniques for changing the behaviour of unruly youngsters diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
The guidelines were issued by the National Institute for health and Clinical Excellence (Nice) and the National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health.
The directive says parent training and education programmes should be offered as a first-line treatment for ADHD, both for pre-school and school-age children.
The programmes show parents how to create a structured home environment, encourage attentiveness and concentration, and better manage misbehaviour.
Research has shown they can be highly effective, helping children do better at school and lead more normal lives.
Teachers should also be involved in the management of school age children, says the guidance.
Common side effects associated with Ritalin include nervousness, insomnia and weight loss, and the drug may also cause an erratic or fast heartbeat, nausea, dizziness and headaches.
Children with the disorder are always on the move, running, climbing or jumping, as if driven by a motor that cannot be switched off.
They tend to push into queues, blurt out answers to incomplete questions, butt into conversations, and act without thinking, which makes them accident prone.
At school they are easily distracted, forgetful, unfocused, and disorganised. They may also find it hard to keep friends and suffer from bullying.
Up to 3% of school-age children and young people are affected by the disorder in the UK, and it has recently been recognised that around 2% of adults also suffer from the problem.
Previously they were often wrongly labelled as having a personality disorder or some other psychological condition.
The causes of ADHD are unclear but thought to include both genetic and environmental influences.
Diet may be involved and a link with fizzy drinks has been suggested.
Problems in the womb or birth trauma could also cause damage in the brain leading to ADHD.
Really good third party research site:
Welcome to the DHA/EPA Omega-3 Institute
Omega 3 Fatty Acids and Brain Development.
There are three major types of omega-3 fatty acids consumed in foods and used by the body: alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The body converts ALA to EPA and DHA, which are the two omega-3 fatty acids used most readily by humans. However, because this conversion is fairly inefficient (less than 5%), dietary consumption of both DHA and EPA is highly recommended—especially in young children in order for them to meet their significant need for these important omega-3 fatty acids. Research continues to validate the important role these omega-3 fatty acids play in normal growth as well as in the early development of a child’s brain and eyes.
DHA - docosahexaenoic acidChildren grow at a much faster rate during theirfirst few years than at any other time in
their lives, stressing the need for parents to ensure optimal nutrition. Of special importance are macronutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and fats) that provide calories and essential vitamins and minerals critical to proper growth, development, and immune function—including all eight B vitamins and vitamins C, A, and D, as well as calcium, iron, and zinc. In addition, growing children should achieve adequate intakes of omega-3 fatty acids such as DHA, which is essential for early brain and eye development.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration and Environmental Protection Agency advise pregnant women, nursing mothers, and young children to avoid some types of fish because they are high in mercury, which makes getting adequate amounts of DHA through the diet alone more difficult.1
Another nutritional challenge most children face today is getting adequate amounts of omega-3 fatty acids from the foods they eat. Omega-3 fatty acids play an important role in proper growth and development of the brain, eyes, and nervous system. Many organizations, including the Institute of Medicine’s Food and Nutrition Board, the World Health Organization (WHO), the American Dietetics Association, and Dietitians of Canada, recommend increased consumption of omega-3 fatty acids in children.8,9,10 Yet studies indicate most American and Canadian children aren’t getting much at all from their diet.1,11 DHA—or docosahexaenoic acid, one of the omega-3 fatty acids used most readily by the body—is found in fatty fish, yet children consume only 20–50 mg of DHA per day. And because of the growing concerns about environmental contaminants in our fish supply, the FDA and EPA advise young children to limit their fish intake.12
Supplementation with a high-quality dietary supplement that uses highly purified fish oil offers a means for safely providing DHA to our children without worrying about the mercury and other environmental toxins present in the fatty fish that provide the food source of DHA.
Early Brain and Visual Development
DHA and EPA are best known for their beneficial role in protecting adults’ cardiovascular health and in lessening inflammatory conditions. However, emerging sciencesuggests that DHA in particular plays an important role in early brain and visual development in growing infants and children. In fact, DHA is the most abundant omega-3 long-chain fatty acid in the brain and, during the last trimester of pregnancy and continuing throughout the first few years of life, it is rapidly incorporated into nervous tissue of the retina and brain.1 Supplementation of infant formula with DHA has been shown to aid growth, development, and vision in premature infants, and prenatal and infant deficiencies of DHA have been shown to lead to brain abnormalities.1
Cognitive and Behavioral Function
Beyond early development and throughout life, DHA isbelieved to continue to influence brain function by playing an important role in brain-cell membrane structure, brain-cell receptor activity, and the production of neurotransmitters and other brain chemicals.2 This has
lead to considerable interest in the potential role DHA may have on cognitive development and behavioral function during childhood. A number of research studies have examined the
relationship between the levels of omega-3 fatty acids in the body and a variety of childhood disorders, including autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity DisorderAttention deficit hyperactivity disorder is one of the most common childhood disorders and it affects 5%–10% of school-age children, or 4.4 million youths ages 4–17. Symptoms include difficulty staying focused and paying attention, difficulty controlling behavior, and a general inability to sit still or tendency to be hyperactive. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) estimate that 2.5 million of these children receive some type of medication to treat this disorder and, to make matters worse, this condition can continue throughout life, with as many as 70% of children diagnosed with ADHD suffering from the disorder into adolescence and adulthood.3 Studies suggest that children with ADHD may have low levels of certain essential fatty acids (including DHA) in their bodies.
In a clinical study of nearly 100 boys, those with lower levels of omega-3 fatty acids demonstrated more learning and behavioral problems—such as temper tantrums and sleep
disturbances—than boys with normal omega-3 fatty acid levels.4 In animal studies, low levels of omega-3 fatty acids have been shown to lower the concentration of certain brain
chemicals—such as dopamine and serotonin—related toattention and motivation.5
Randomized clinical trials assessing the effects of omega-3 supplementation on symptoms of ADHD have been published. Some studies indicate supplementing a child’s diet with a combination of long-chain fatty acids including DHA and EPA may be beneficial for reducing symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity when compared with a placebo6,7, while other studies have found no benefit.8
Because of the diversity of findings, more research is needed and, as of today, firm conclusions are difficult to draw. However, researchers have proposed that future studies be designed to: 1) better understand the mechanism of action of omega-3 fatty acids in ADHD, 2) identify which children with ADHD might benefit from omega-3 supplementation, 3) determine which fatty acids—and how much—to supplement with, and 4) pinpoint the optimal time for intervention (e.g. prenatal, infancy, or at time of diagnosis).9 However, until then, consumption of foods and supplements high in omega-3 fatty acids is a reasonable approach for someone with ADHD.
AutismAutism is one of a group of disorders known as autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Autism usually is diagnosed by age 3 and lasts throughout a person’s life. Children with autism or other ASDs can suffer a wide array of developmental disabilities that can cause substantial impairments in social interaction and communication, as well as unusual behaviors and interests. Many children with ASDs also have unusual ways of learning, paying attention, and reacting to different sensations, and there is significant variability in severity—some children are high functioning while others can be quite severely affected. Recent data from the CDC’s Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network indicate that about 1 in 150 8-year-olds living in the United States has an ASD. Scientists think there may be many causes that can lead to the development of an ASD—and both genes and the environment appear to play a role.10 There is some evidence that alterations in fatty acid metabolism may play a role in the pathophysiology of autism.
In one study, researchers compared the levels of fatty acids in the blood of a group of autistic children with those in a group of mentally challenged control subjects. Results indicated a 23% reduction in levels of DHA in the children with autism, resulting in significantly lower levels of total omega-3 fatty acids—without a reduction in total omega-6 fatty acids.11 The reasons for the lower concentrations of DHA are not well understood, but several hypotheses have
been proposed. It may be that children with autism have insufficient dietary intakes of DHA, may have less ability to convert ALA to DHA, and/or have an enhanced breakdown of
DHA in cell membranes.11
Dietary Intake of Omega-3s—Are Children
The growing evidence in support of a positive relationship between omega-3 fatty acids and many health outcomes in children (and adults as well, for that matter!) have fueled the
realization that relatively recent changes in the diet of Americans has dramatically changed the type of fat consumed, resulting in a significant shift in the ratio of omega-6 fatty
acids to omega-3 fatty acids, thereby potentially changing the fatty acid composition of the brain. Omega-6 fatty acids such as linoleic acid (LA) are abundant in our diet, with a major source coming from vegetable oils, which tend to be much higher in omega-6 than omega-3 fatty acids. In the days of hunters and gatherers, the dietary ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids was believed to be in the range of 1:1 to 2:1. However, over the past 50–100 years, intakes of omega-3 fatty acids such as DHA and EPA have declined while the intake of omega-6 fatty acids has increased, such that the ratio of omega-6s to omega-3s is now estimated in the range of 15:1 to 25:1.12 This ratio is important because the omega-6 fatty acid LA and the omega-3 fatty acid ALA compete for the same enzymes that convert ALA to DHA and EPA. Therefore, it is believed that both excessive intakes of omega-6 fatty acids and lesser amounts of omega-3s may actually diminish DHA availability in the brain. In addition, the decreased overall intake of omega-3s means less DHA and EPA are available for incorporation into brain-cell membranes. Both the American Dietetics Association and Dietitans of Canada recommend an increase in dietary intakes of omega-3 fatty acids13, and recommended intakes for omega-3 fatty acids to support optimal neuronal functioning and overall health of children have been established by various internationally recognized organizations.14 Although specific dietary requirements for DHA and EPA in children have not been established, the National Academy of Sciences’ Institute of Medicine has established a recommended intake for total omega-3 fatty acids as ALA (see Table 1, Page 18)15, with DHA and EPA contributing 10% toward the recommended intake. For example, the recommended intake of total omega-3 fatty acids for children ages 4–8 is 900 mg a day, of which 90 mg may come from DHA and EPA.
Table 1: Recommended AdequateIntakes (AI) for Omega-3 Fatty Acids in
Infants and Children*
Life Stages Age (Mg/Day)
Infants 0–12 mos 500 mg
Children 1–3 yrs 700 mg
Children 4–8 yrs 900 mg
Children 9–13 yrs 1,200 mg
Note: 10% of the above amounts (AI values) may be in the form of DHA and EPA.
*Source: Food and Nutrition Board, USA, 2005
Given these recommendations, the question remains as to whether children are consuming adequate amounts of omega-3s, especially DHA and EPA. Based on the most current national nutrition survey findings, most infants and children are not. Data collected from the 1999–2000 National Health Examination Survey estimated that intakes of DHA among children 11 years old and younger to be only 20–40 mg a day16, and in a recent study published in the Journal of Nutrition, researchers quantified the omega-3 fatty acid intake in a group of Canadian children ages 4–8. The mean dietary intake of DHA in these children, according to this study, was only 54 mg per day.17 Because of the ever-growing and emerging body of literature demonstrating the importance of omega-3 fatty acids in proper growth and development, early brain and visual development, and possibly in childhood conditions such as ADHD and autism, this dietary gap should be readily filled with an increased consumption of foods rich in DHA such as fish and seafood. However, increased fish consumption poses additional concerns. Nearly all fish and shellfish contain traces of mercury—and some may contain other environmental pollutants that may pose harm to an unborn baby or to a young child’s developing nervous system. In fact, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) advise women who may become pregnant, pregnant women, nursing mothers, and young children to avoid some types of fish and eat only fish and shellfish that are lower in mercury.18 Concerns about the safety of fish consumption coupled with inadequate dietary intakes suggest that most children would benefit from taking a high-quality dietary supplement that uses a pharmaceutical-grade, highly purified fish oil to deliver omega-3 fatty acids, including plenty of DHA to support the proper development and function of the brain and eyes.
1. McCann JC, Ames BN, Is docosahexaenoic acid, an n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated
fatty acid, required for development of normal brain function? An overview of evidence from cognitive and behavioral tests in humans and animals. Am J Clin Nutr 2005;82:281-95.
2. Eilander A. et al. Effects of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation
on visual and cognitive development throughout childhood: A review of human studies. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids 2007;26:189-203.
3. Information obtained 3.11.09 from: http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/.
4. Stevens LJ, Zentall SS, Abate ML, Kuczek T, Burgess JR. Omega-3 fatty acids in boys with behavior, learning and health problems. Physiol Behav. 1996;59(4/5):915-920.
5. Vancassel S et al. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation reverses stress-induced modifications on brain monoamine levels in mice. J Lipd Res. 2008;49(2):340-348.
6. Sinn N, Bryan J. Effect of supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids and micronutrients on learning and behavior problems associated with child ADHD. Dev Behav Pediatr 2007;28:82–91.
7. Stevens L, Zhang W, Peck L, Kuczek T, Grevstat N, Mahon A. EFA supplementation in children with inattention, hyperactivity and other disruptive behaviours. Lipids 2003;38:1007-1021.
8. Voigt RG, Llorente AM, Jensen CL, Fraley JK, Berretta MC, Heird WC.
A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of docosahexaenoic acid supplementation in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Pediatrics 2001;139:189-196.
9. Busch B. Polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation for ADHD? Fishy, facinating,
and far from clear. J Dev Behav Pediatr 2007;28:139-144.
10. Information obtained 3.11.09 from: http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/autism/ overview.htm.
11. Vancassel S. et al. Plasma fatty acid levels in autistic children.
Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids 2001;85(1):1-7.
12. Simopoulos AP. Evolutionary aspects of diet, the omega-6/omega-3 ratio and genetic variation: Nutritional implications for chronic diseases. Biomed Pharmacother 2006;60(9):502-507.
13. American Dietetics Association. Position of the American Dietetics Association and Dietitians of Canada: Fatty acids J Am Diet Assoc. 2007;107:1599-1611.
14. Information obtained on 3.13.09 from: www.issfal.org.uk/ recommendations-of-others.html.
15. National Academy of Sciences Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary reference intakes for energy, carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein and amino acids. 2002-2005.
16. Ervin RB, Write JD, Wang C. et al. Dietary intake of fats and fatty acids for the United States population: 1999-2000. Advanced Data. Vital and Health Statistics, Number 348, 2004.
17. Madden SM, Garrioch CF, Holub BJ. Diet quantification indicates low intakes of (n-3) fatty
Links for other studies on brain health and Omega-3 Fatty Acids
Maternal seafood consumption in pregnancy and neurodevelopmental outcomes in childhood (ALSPAC study): an observational cohort study
Effect of Supplementation with Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Micronutrients on Learning and Behavior Problems Associated with Child ADHD
Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation in Children with Autism: A Double-Blind Randomized, Placebo-controlled Pilot Study
Evaluation of Omega-3 Supplementation (DHA/EPA) in Children with Dyslexia
Lower DHA Omega-3 Status in Blood of Adolescents with ADHD
Maternal Fish Intake and Cognitive Testing in Children at Age 3 Years
Higher DHA Status in Maternal Cord Blood and Improved Measures of Infant Development
DHA Supplementation in Preschool Children and Cognitive Assessment
Omega-3 Supplementation in Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
And just in case you might think that Omega 3 Fatty Acids only affect young brains:
Blood Levels of EPA and Decreased Risk of Dementia